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Three surprising resource implications from the rise of electric vehicles

By Russell HensleyStefan Knupfer, and Dickon Pinner

Three surprising resource implications from the rise of electric vehicles

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The economic consequences for energy, raw materials, and land may not be what you’d expect.

Demand for electric vehicles (EVs) is primed for the passing lane. While EVs accounted for only about 1 percent of global annual vehicle sales in 2016 and just 0.2 percent of vehicles on the road, McKinsey estimates that by 2030 EVs (including battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids) could rise to almost 20 percent of annual global sales (and almost 35 percent of sales in Europe). These rates could rise even faster under aggressive scenarios. Already, demography is proving to be destiny. Recent surveys suggest that 30 percent of car-buying individuals and nearly 50 percent of millennials will consider purchasing an EV for their next car instead of one powered by a traditional internal-combustion engine (ICE).1

Increased EV adoption will affect more and different natural resources, as well as multiple industries, different geographies, and levels of carbon emissions. Indeed, ecological concerns figure strongly in most consumers’ decisions to purchase an EV. Wanting to help the environment was the number-one given reason (by a substantial margin) that American buyers chose an EV in a 2017 CarMax survey.2A study by AAA that same year also found environmental concerns to be EV purchasers’ leading consideration—at a staggering 87 percent rate.3 Yet our research reveals that several common assumptions about EVs and the Earth’s resources are misplaced. And in some cases, the common wisdom is almost entirely wrong.

Fossil fuels: EVs do not spell peak oil

Start with crude oil. More EVs will dramatically depress oil demand—right? Actually, no; having more electric and hybrid vehicles on the road is expected to reduce oil demand only modestly over the next 10 to 15 years. To the extent that there is downward pressure on oil demand, it will come in large measure from improvements in ICE efficiency and from making vehicles more lightweight. Those efficiencies have already increased at about 2 percent per annum since 2005 (raising miles per gallon for an average ICE vehicle in the United States from 26 in 2005 to 32 today). We anticipate they will continue to rise at more than 2.5 percent a year through 2025.

Yet even as internal-combustion-powered vehicles become more efficient and less predominant, global crude-oil demand will continue to grow, all while EVs experience a significant increase as a proportion of vehicles on the road. Increased oil demand will come from a variety of sources, including industries such as chemicals and aviation; growing regions, notably China and other emerging markets; and the sale of more automobiles globally, including more ICE-powered automobiles, and hence more vehicle miles traveled worldwide.

EV adoption will, however, significantly affect demand for a different fossil fuel: natural gas. More EVs mean that more electricity will have to be produced. While coal will be part of the equation, approximately 80 percent of the forecast growth in US electricity demand is expected to be met with natural gas. If half of the automobiles on American roads were EVs, daily US natural-gas demand would be expected to increase by more than 20 percent.

Would you like to learn more about the McKinsey Center for Future Mobility?

Land: An unexpected squeeze?

There are currently more than 400,000 public charging points that support the more than three million EVs now in use globally. This number will have to rise significantly to meet the global EV-adoption increases forecast by 2030 (Exhibit 1). Simply replacing gas stations with charging points or adding more charging points that are the size of gas stations won’t be sufficient to service the expected number of EVs. It will take multiple rapid 120-kilowatt charging stations with eight outlets to dispense a similar amount of range per hour as the standard-size gas station of today.

Exhibit 1

As electric-vehicle adoption increases, the demand for public charging stations will skyrocket.

The possibility of a land squeeze will be much greater in Europe and China than in the United States. Only 40 percent of European and 30 percent of Chinese EV owners have access to private parking and wall charging, versus 75 percent of US EV owners. Nor is the challenge merely a question of where to plug in or power up; generation and distribution are also factors. Today’s power facilities can accommodate tomorrow’s significant rise in the number of EVs, as long as the vehicles are charged off peak. Faster charging during peak demand, however, will indeed have an impact. In fact, peak demand from a single EV using a top-of-the-range fast charger is 80 times higher than the expected peak demand of a single typical household.

These potential constraints will likely have to be addressed through a variety of approaches, from innovation to top-down mandates. China has set a target of 4.8 million charging stations by 2020; McKinsey expects that the country’s governmental record of centralized policies and compulsory implementation will ensure the country meets its mark. Funding outside of China, however, will be more challenging. California utilities, for example, look to increase publicly funded investments, with regulated returns. Private funding, on the other hand, could come from companies such as retailers. Several retail leaders are already beginning to consider how to turn the charging experience to their advantage by giving customers the opportunity to purchase while powering up. Just as shopping malls have long conjured images of leading retailers anchoring the buying experience, large retail-driven charging stations may come to mark the commercial landscape.

Ores and metals: Between a cliff and a hard place

It’s not surprising that more EVs on the road will result in greater price pressure for their constituent parts. The cost of an EV can be broken down largely into the cost of its battery (40 to 50 percent), electric power train (about 20 percent), and other elements of the vehicle itself (30 to 40 percent). Of these, battery costs will be the most important in the medium term. And pricing dynamics will reflect more than just demand. Currently, battery costs are about $200 to $225 per kilowatt hour. We estimate that a battery cost of $100 per kilowatt hour will be required to achieve cost parity with ICE vehicles for most C-segment and D-segment vehicles4 and $75 per kilowatt hour for larger ones, unless government subsidies are continued—an unlikely proposition, as subsidies worldwide are already being phased out. If EV sales are to meet forecast levels, battery-manufacturing capacity will need to increase too— by our analyses, threefold by 2020. Technological improvements must also continue apace.

The global electric-vehicle market is amped up and on the riseThe global electric-vehicle market is amped up and on the rise

Read the article

Higher EV sales will help reduce battery costs, with major battery manufacturers racing to expand capacity. At the same time, EV growth will put pressure on the costs of crucial battery inputs, including cobalt and lithium, for which demand will rise sharply. That dynamic has already begun to unfold; the costs of cobalt and lithium have more than doubled since 2015, an effect that has resulted in a net increase in EV production costs over that time (Exhibit 2).

Exhibit 2

Electric-vehicle growth has already begun to strain demand for cobalt and lithium.

Will the availability of these materials constrain greater EV penetration? Optimistically, no. Even with the predicted rise in input costs, batteries can still come close enough to the $75 to $100 per kilowatt threshold needed to approach broad ICE price parity. While concerns such as a “cobalt cliff” exist and demand implications could present a temporary speedbump, the constraints and uncertainties should be addressable. Shifting to other battery chemistries can mitigate risks of shortage. Mining more of the raw materials will also be needed, which, we estimate, will require investments of $100 billion to $150 billion. As well, mining’s hard realities will still apply, including lead times of up to several years and ecological and social concerns in regions within Africa and South America where much of these raw materials are found. Even as a green solution, in other words, EVs will have costs as well as benefits for society, our environment, and the resources we consume.

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About the author(s)

Russell Hensley is a partner in McKinsey’s Detroit office, Stefan Knupfer is a senior partner in the Stamford office, and Dickon Pinner is a senior partner in the San Francisco office. The authors are members of the McKinsey Center for Future Mobility.

The authors wish to thank Hauke Engel, Patrick Hertzke, Shivika Sahdev, and Patrick Schaufuss for their contributions to this article.

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Travelling with an electric vehicle

You can now go farther than ever in an electric vehicle

 

 

Canada’s growing electric vehicle infrastructure has charging stations ranging from St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador to Victoria, British Columbia, and more are being built all the time.

Planning a trip?

Use this map to locate electric charging and hydrogen fuelling stations along your route.

Plan your trip

Investing in cleaner transportation

With our private sector partners, we are supporting new charging stations for electric vehicles and refuelling stations for alternative fuels across the country.

We are investing $182.5 million in green infrastructure and clean technologies and are committed to increasing the number of zero-emission vehicles on Canada’s roads.

There are electric vehicles for all lifestyles

With a wide range of models and price points, buying an electric vehicle has never been easier. Right now, there are over 30 battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) available in Canada.

  • BEVs produce no carbon dioxide or other emissions during operation.
  • PHEVs are emissions-free only when operating in electric mode, but they may have a greater driving range than BEVs

Many models have enough battery range to meet your daily driving needs when charged overnight.

Find out which vehicle is right for you

battery-electric vehicle

What is a battery-electric vehicle?
Learn about the technology and benefits of BEVs by watching our video.

plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

What is a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle?
Learn about the technology and benefits of PHEVs by watching our video.

 

Compare electric vehicles
Get information on fuel consumption and estimated annual fuel costs.

Compare fuel consumption ratings
Compare electric vehicles with conventional vehicles.
 

Electric vehicles are more affordable than ever

If you live in Quebec or British Columbia, your provincial government has financial incentives to encourage you to buy or lease an electric vehicle. Check out the programs available:

The Government of Canada is continuing to invest in infrastructure for zero emission vehicles

The government is investing $182.5 million in green infrastructure and clean technologies  and partnering with the private sector to support the demonstration and deployment of new charging stations for electric vehicles as well as refuelling stations for alternative fuels such as hydrogen and natural gas, and is committed to developing a national strategy for zero emission vehicles in 2018 to increase the number of zero-emission vehicles on Canadian roads.

Date Modified: 

2018-09-12

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Electric vehicles are energy and cost efficient

Electric-drive motors are much more efficient than combustion engines and drivetrains. The efficiency of energy conversion from on-board storage to turning the wheels is nearly five times greater for electricity than gasoline, at approximately 76% and 16%, respectively.

Electric vehicles also increase a vehicle’s efficiency by using regenerative braking technology to recover energy that would otherwise have been lost.

PHEVs and BEVs can be recharged from a charging station that uses standard 240-volt electrical power (the kind used for stoves and clothes dryers in most homes). Most can be recharged from a 110-volt service, although charging time will be significantly longer.

The cost of electricity per kilometre is much lower than that of gasoline: a BEV costs about 2 to 3 ¢/km (at 13 ¢/kWh), compared to a typical 4-cylinder gasoline vehicle at 7 to 8 ¢/km (at $1.00/L).

Compare electric vehicles by model year

2019 model year electric vehicles
2018 model year electric vehicles
2017 model year electric vehicles
2016 model year electric vehicles
2015 model year electric vehicles
2014 model year electric vehicles
2013 model year electric vehicles
2012 model year electric vehicles

Date Modified: 

2018-09-18


2019 model year electric vehicles

Understanding the tables

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

Make Model
SpecificationsFootnote1
Fuel
type
Combined Le/100 km
City/Hwy/Comb L/100 km
$/yr CO2
(g/km)
CO2
rating
Smog
rating
Range
(km)
Recharge
time (h)
BMW 530e
C, 83 kW, 2.0 L,
4 cyl, AS8
B/Z* 3.3 (28.5 kWh/100 km + 0.0
L/100 km)
$1,464 120 10 7 26 2
Z 8.6 / 7.7 / 8.2 560 -
BMW 530e xDRIVE
C, 83 kW, 2.0 L,
4 cyl, AS8
B/Z* 3.5 (30.2 kWh/100 km + 0.0
L/100 km)
$1,511 124 10 7 24 2
Z 8.8 / 7.7 / 8.3 554 -
BMW 740e xDRIVE
L, 83 kW, 2.0 L,
4 cyl, AS8
B/Z* 3.6 (32.1 kWh/100 km + 0.0
L/100 km)
$1,616 133 9 3 23 3
Z 9.5 / 8.0 / 8.8 525 -
BMW i8 COUPE
S, 105 kW, 1.5 L,
3 cyl, AS6
B/Z* 3.4 (30.6 kWh/100 km + 0.0
L/100 km)
$1,512 118 10 3 29 3
Z 9.2 / 8.0 / 8.7 488 -
BMW i8 ROADSTER
T, 105 kW, 1.5 L,
3 cyl, AS6
B/Z* 3.4 (30.6 kWh/100 km + 0.0
L/100 km)
$1,512 118 10 3 29 3
Z 9.2 / 8.0 / 8.7 488 -
CHEVROLET VOLT
C, 111 kW, 1.5 L,
4 cyl, AV
B 2.2 (19.5 kWh/100 km) $655 32 10 7 85 4.5
X 5.5 / 5.6 / 5.6 591 -
CHRYSLER PACIFICA HYBRID
V, 89 kW, 3.6 L,
6 cyl, AV
B/X* 2.9 (25.8 kWh/100 km + 0.0 L/100 km $1,043 74 10 7 51 2
X 8.0 / 7.9 / 8.0 784 -
FORD FUSION ENERGI
M, 68 kW, 2.0 L,
4 cyl, AV
B/X* 2.3 (20.5 kWh/100 km + 0.0 L/100 km) $812 61 10 7 42 2.6
X 5.5 / 5.8 / 5.6 940 -
HYUNDAI IONIQ ELECTRIC PLUS
M, 32 kW, 1.6 L,
4 cyl, AM6
B/X* 2.0 (17.7 kWh/100 km + 0.0 L/100 km) $655 46 10 7 47 2.3
X 4.4 / 4.6 / 4.5 961 -
HYUNDAI SONATA PLUG-IN
M, 50 kW, 2.0 L,
4 cyl, AM6
B/X* 2.4 (20.9 kWh/100 km + 0.0 L/100 km) $836 62 10 7 45 2.7
X 6.3 / 5.6 / 6.0 925 -
KARMA REVERO
S, 300 kW, 2.0 L,
4 cyl, A1
B 3.9 (34.7 kWh/100 km) $1,526 94 10 1 60 3.75
Z 11.8 / 11.2 / 11.5 328 -
KIA NIRO PLUG-IN
WS, 32 kW, 1.6 L,
4 cyl, AM6
B/X* 2.2 (19.7 kWh/100 km + 0.0 L/100 km) $753 56 10 7 42 2.25
X 4.9 / 5.3 / 5.1 853 -
KIA OPTIMA PLUG-IN
M, 50 kW, 2.0 L,
4 cyl, AM6
B/X* 2.3 (20.3 kWh/100 km + 0.0 L/100 km) $816 60 10 7 47 2.7
X 6.2 / 5.5 / 5.9 937 -
MINI COOPER S E COUNTRYMAN ALL4
M, 65 kW, 1.5 L,
3 cyl, AS6
B/Z* 3.6 (31.4 kWh/100 km + 0.0
L/100 km)
$1,623 139 9 3 19 3
Z 8.4 / 8.8 / 8.6 420 -
MITSUBISHI OUTLANDER PHEV AWD
US, 60 kW, 2.0 L,
4 cyl, A1
B/X* 3.2 (27.7 kWh/100 km + 0.0
L/100 km)
$1,316 108 10 7 35 3.5
X 9.4 / 9.0 / 9.2 463 -
TOYOTA PRIUS PRIME
M, 71 kW, 1.8 L,
4 cyl, AV
B/X* 1.8 (15.8 kWh/100 km + 0.0 L/100 km) $635 49 10 7 40 2
X 4.3 / 4.4 / 4.3 995 -
VOLVO S90 T8 AWD
M, 65 kW, 2.0 L,
4 cyl, AS8
B/Z* 3.2 (27.7 kWh/100 km + 0.0
L/100 km)
$1,338 100 10 7 34 3
Z 8.9 / 7.1 / 8.1 753 -
VOLVO XC60 T8 AWD
US, 65 kW, 2.0 L,
4 cyl, AS8
B/Z* 3.8 (34.0 kWh/100 km + 0.0
L/100 km)
$1,613 128 9 7 27 3
Z 9.5 / 8.5 / 9.0 779 -
VOLVO XC90 T8 AWD
UL, 65 kW, 2.0 L,
4 cyl, AS8
B/Z* 3.9 (34.3 kWh/100 km + 0.0
L/100 km)
$1,658 132 9 7 27 3
Z 9.8 / 8.7 / 9.3 756 -

*In testing, this vehicle did not use any gasoline for electric mode operation. However, depending on how you drive the vehicle, you may use gasoline during electric mode operation following a full charge.

Battery-electric vehicles

Make Model
SpecificationsFootnote2
Fuel
type
City/Hwy/Comb kWh/100 km
City/Hwy/Comb Le/100 km
$/yr CO2
(g/km)
CO2
rating
Smog
rating
Range
(km)
Recharge
time (h)
CHEVROLET BOLT EV
WS, 150 kW, A1 B 16.4 / 19.0 / 17.6 $458 0 10 10 383 9.3
1.8 / 2.1 / 2.0
JAGUAR I-PACE
US, 294 kW, A1 B 26.2 / 29.1 / 27.5 $715 0 10 10 377 13
2.9 / 3.3 / 3.1
KIA SOUL EV
WS, 81 kW, A1 B 16.8 / 22.4 / 19.3 $502 0 10 10 179 5
1.9 / 2.5 / 2.2
TESLA MODEL 3 Mid Range
M, 202 kW, A1 B 16.4 / 17.9 / 17.1 $445 0 10 10 418 10
1.8 / 2.0 / 1.9
TESLA MODEL 3 Long Range
M, 202 kW, A1 B 15.3 / 17.0 / 16.1 $419 0 10 10 499 10
1.7 / 1.9 / 1.8
TESLA MODEL 3 Long Range AWD
M, 335 kW, A1 B 17.4 / 18.7 / 18.0 $468 0 10 10 499 10
2.0 / 2.1 / 2.0
TESLA MODEL 3 Long Range AWD Performance
M, 358 kW, A1 B 17.4 / 18.7 / 18.0 $468 0 10 10 499 10
2.0 / 2.1 / 2.0
TESLA MODEL S 75D
L, 386 kW, A1 B 20.6 / 19.9 / 20.3 $528 0 10 10 417 12
2.3 / 2.2 / 2.3
TESLA MODEL S 100D
L, 386 kW, A1 B 20.7 / 20.5 / 20.6 $536 0 10 10 539 12
2.3 / 2.3 / 2.3
TESLA MODEL S P100D
L, 568 kW, A1 B 22.6 / 20.0 / 21.5 $559 0 10 10 507 12
2.5 / 2.3 / 2.4
TESLA MODEL X 75D
UL, 386 kW, A1 B 23.0 / 21.9 / 22.5 $585 0 10 10 383 12
2.6 / 2.5 / 2.5
TESLA MODEL X 100D
UL, 386 kW, A1 B 24.3 / 23.7 / 24.0 $624 0 10 10 475 12
2.7 / 2.7 / 2.7
TESLA MODEL X P100D
UL, 568 kW, A1 B 25.4 / 23.6 / 24.6 $640 0 10 10 465 12
2.8 / 2.7 / 2.8
VOLKSWAGEN e-GOLF
C, 100 kW, A1 B 16.8 / 18.6 / 17.4 $452 0 10 10 201 5.3
1.9 / 2.1 / 2.0

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Class, motor (kW), engine size (L), cylinders, transmission

Return to footnote1referrer

Footnote 2

Class, motor (kW), transmission

Return to footnote2referrer

Date Modified: 

2018-12-27

 
Resource
 

Do Electric Cars Work in Cold Weather? Get the Facts…

, SENIOR ENGINEER, CLEAN VEHICLES | FEBRUARY 16, 2016, 10:30 AM EST

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In short, yes. All cars (both gasoline and electric) have lower fuel efficiencies at colder temperatures, decreasing how far the vehicle can travel without refueling. However, because some electric vehicles (EVs) have a lower range than the typical gasoline car, these efficiency losses can be an important consideration when choosing an EV in places that have cold winters. Still, today’s EV’s work just fine in cold climates, and new models will be even better.

An EV on the slopes of Mt. Hood in Oregon. (Source Oregon Department of Transportation flickr/oregondot)

An EV on the slopes of Mt. Hood in Oregon. (Source Oregon Department of Transportation flickr/oregondot)

Gasoline vehicles and electric vehicles both lose in cold weather

In cold weather, all cars get less efficient. For gasoline-powered cars, factors like cold engine oil and increased idling can reduce fuel economy in freezing conditions by 20% or more. Overall, electric cars are more efficient than gasoline cars because an electric motor is much more efficient in turning stored electricity into motion than an internal combustion engine is in converting the chemical energy of gasoline to mechanical energy.

You can see (or feel) this inefficiency when considering the energy lost in the form of heat that leaves a gasoline car through the tailpipe and radiator. That heat is energy from the gasoline that is wasted. About 60% of the energy from gasoline is turned into heat, while only about 20% goes to drive the wheels. However, when temperatures dip, this “waste” heat is used to warm the cabin.

battery electric car lacks a wasteful (but warm) engine, so an electric heating system (either a resistive heater or heat pump) is needed to keep the inside climate toasty on a chilly day. This electricity for heating will come from the same battery that’s used to power the electric drivetrain, so the effective range will drop in cold weather (assuming the driver chooses to use the heater).

Not all of the loss in range is due to the climate control system. Batteries also have lower performance as the temperature dips due to the impact of the temperature on mobility of electrons through the battery. To keep performance and reduce accelerated aging of the batteries, many EVs have a thermal management system that keeps the battery warmed (or cooled in hot temps) to an optimum temperature range. Warming the battery pack takes power that reduces range. Heating the cabin and battery combined can increase the auxiliary power load on an EV like the Nissan LEAFfrom below 1 kW to almost 3kW as the temp goes from 68 ºF to 10 ºF.

”Nissan

There are ways to reduce the impact of cold temperatures on the performance and range of EVs. One is to heat the cabin and/or battery before unplugging the car. This “preconditioning” of the EV can even be done by a smartphone or watch app on some cars. It’s similar to the use of engine block heaters and remote start systems used on gasoline cars (though without the exhaust of an idling engine). Grid electricity is used by the EV to warm the battery and interior, so that more of the car’s stored electricity can go to driving the wheels.

Electric vehicles are also getting better at cold temperature performance. For example, using high efficiency heat pumps can provide cabin heating with much less drain on the battery than a resistive heater. Other design improvements can help such as using heat from the electric motor and power control electronics to heat the battery and/or the vehicle cabin. These types of improvements have typically been found in EVs that were designed from the start to use an electric drivetrain, so we should see these more efficient features become more common as more manufacturers build “EV-only” models like the Chevy Bolt and BMW i3.

People are buying, and loving, EVs in cold places

So how do EVs work in the real world for people in cold climes? The EV fleet management company Fleet Carma has tracked trips in the Nissan LEAF in Canada and the U.S. and found that overall range drops from close to 80 miles in shirtsleeve weather to 50-60 miles when driven in below freezing conditions.

This is a noticeable drop, but still leaves enough range for many drivers. For example, our survey of U.S. drivers found that 54% reported daily driving of less than 40 miles and 69% drive less than 60 miles on the average day. For a longer range EV, like the Tesla Model S or the upcoming Chevy Bolt, the impact of cold weather is likely to be less of an issue. These cars have more total range available, so any loss of range will impact driving utility less and offer drivers ample battery capacity to run both the motor and heaters for extended drives. For example, Telsa reports that their Model S 70D model loses about 19% range when driving in 0 degree Fahrenheit weather with the heater on, reducing the range to 195 miles.

 

Nissan LEAF average range as a function temperature. Data from Fleet Carma via “Effects of Regional Temperature on Electric Vehicle Efficiency, Range, and Emissions in the United States”

Nissan LEAF average range as a function temperature. Data from Fleet Carma via “Effects of Regional Temperature on Electric Vehicle Efficiency, Range, and Emissions in the United States”

Tesla Model S 70D highway (65mph) range as a function temperature. Because of its larger battery pack and more efficient thermal management system, the Tesla retains nearly 200 miles of range at 0 degrees Fahrenheit. Data as reported on Tesla Motors website.

Tesla Model S 70D highway (65mph) range as a function temperature. Because of its larger battery pack and more efficient thermal management system, the Tesla retains nearly 200 miles of range at 0 degrees Fahrenheit. Data as reported on Tesla Motors website.

If they work in Norway, EVs can handle our winters

To see if EVs work in cold weather, one can look at the example of Norway. Norway’s generous incentives for EVs has made electric vehicles popular in this Nordic country. Over 70,000 EVs have been sold in Norway, and EVs made up over 20% of all new cars sold in the first 9 months of 2015. Subsidies are a major reason for these high EV sales rates, but drivers wouldn’t be picking these cars if they didn’t work for their driving needs. Not only are Norwegians picking EVs, but also many of them are choosing shorter range EVs from Nissan and Volkswagen, despite the sub-freezing average winter temperatures. EVs are also working closer to home in colder climates like Canada and Vermont.

One Chevy dealer in Quebec has even moved his dealership to selling mostly Chevy Volt plug-in hybrids.

EV performance is impacted by cold weather, but an electric vehicle can be a good choice for many Americans, even those in the northern reaches of the country. And in the Northwest and Northeast states EV drivers can access some of the cleanest electricity in the country, greatly reducing emissions from driving (use our EV tool to calculate emissions in your local area). Affordable longer range EVs will make cold weather even less of an issue—but even today’s EVs are working all-year round in every state in the nation.

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Electric Vehicle Range

“Range Anxiety” is the number one concern potential EV buyers have; the fear that they will run out of electricity half way and get stranded. The majority of EVs travel 200-400 km on a single charge. This is a lot more than it seems and there are several reasons why “range anxiety” should not be holding you back.

Most Canadians Drive 60 km or Less Per Day

This is well within the range of every EV available for sale in Canada. The next time you start your morning commute, set your trip calculator to zero and track your actual distance travelled. You may be surprised to learn that it is not as far as you think.

Battery Technology is Improving

The third generation of EVs being released in 2018 come with larger and more efficient battery packs with 200+ km driving ranges on a single charge. This is more than enough to suit the day-to-day needs of the average Canadian driver.

Public Charging Infrastructure is Growing

There are over 5,000 public charging stations in Canada, 250 of which are Level 3 DC-Quick chargers that will charge an EV battery from empty to 80% in 30 - 45 minutes. Most EVs have on-board GPS systems that can navigate to nearby charging stations. Many businesses and workplaces are installing charging stations for customer and/or employee use.

You Do Not Need to Buy a Fully Electric Car

For drivers that must travel more than 200 km on a regular basis, plug-in hybrids are the solution. Plug-in hybrids have all-electric driving distances between 20-80 km, (perfect for most morning commutes and inner-city driving), with backup gasoline engines or generators for inter-city highway driving.

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Here are the new all-electric vehicles coming in 2019

Fred Lambert

- Dec. 30th 2018 1:13 pm ET

@FredericLambert

 

589 Comments 

With every year, buyers have more all-electric vehicle options and 2019 is not going to be an exception.

Here are the new all-electric vehicles coming in 2019.

In the EV space, every year is more exciting than the last one, but I think we will soon see a massive acceleration of new EV models coming to market.

Unfortunately, I don’t think that’s 2019.

It’s still going to be a great year for EVs with undoubtedly a record number of new EVs hitting the road, but it won’t be an exceptional year for new EV models coming to market.

I think 2020 and 2021 are going to be standout years for that.

Nonetheless, we are going to see a few new all-electric models hitting the market and that’s going to result to more options to buyers:

Audi e-tron 2019

The only reason for the Audi e-tron being on the list is actually because it is late. It was supposed to hit the market in 2018, but it was delayed due to software issues.

Now the first deliveries in Europe are expected in Q1 2019 and it should make it to North America in Q2 2019.

As I reported in my Audi e-tron first drive review, I am fairly impressed by virtually every aspect of the vehicle except for its efficiency.

Despite having a large 95 kWh battery pack, I think people are only going to be able to get about 200 miles of range out of the vehicle.

While that’s disappointing on an efficiency basis, it’s still enough for most people and I think that as a premium SUV with a $74,800 starting price before incentives, it’s going to find its place in the market in 2019.

Mercedes-Benz EQC 2019

The Mercedes-Benz EQC is going to be a direct competitor to Audi e-tron and with the two vehicles combined, I am hoping that they are going to help rapidly convert the premium SUV segment to all-electric.

Tesla’s Model X already helped, but it’s not for everyone and I think the EQC and the e-tron will bring new buyers.

Unlike the e-tron, we haven’t had the chance to try to EQC yet, but it is expected to soon go into production and we should have an opportunity to get in the SUV soon.

Mercedes-Benz is talking about a 450km (280 miles) journey, but the company was still using the NEDC standard when it made the announcement.

I wouldn’t be surprised if the real-world range is much closer to around 200 miles on a single charge.

The battery pack will be powered by 2 asynchronous motors with a total capacity of 300 kW (408 hp). It can achieve a top speed of 180 km/h (111 mph) and an acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 5.1 seconds.

According to the spec sheet, the EQC is equipped with a water-cooled onboard charger with a capacity of 7.4 kW and has a maximum capacity of up to 110 kW at an appropriate charging station.“

The German automaker has yet to confirm the price, but it is expected to start at around $70,000.

Mini Electric 2019

The BMW group hasn’t brought a new all-electric vehicle to market since the BMW i3 back in 2013, but it’s finally happening.

In 2019, BMW is supposed to start the production of the all-electric Mini.

We haven’t actually seen the production version of the vehicle yet, but Mini has been releasing electric concept vehicles for years now and the one seen above is expected to be the closest one to what is going to be in production.

Not much is known about the specs of the Mini electric.

I feel kind of bummed out about the vehicle because even though it’s years in the making, I feel like BMW is not bringing its best effort.

Earlier this year, we visited BMW to take a look at their 5th gen electric powertrain technology and they are doing some impressive things, but it won’t be in the electric Mini.

They are skipping the Mini and instead, the next-gen EV technology will debut in the BMW iX3.

We expect that the range in the Mini is going to be limited to around 150 miles of range, which is going to make more of an urban vehicle.

I am not sure if that’s the right thing to do in 2019, but it will all depend on the price. If the price is not excessive, it could maybe become an interesting option.

We should learn more in the coming months.

BMW i3 2019

While BMW has taken its sweet time to release a new all-electric vehicle, the automaker has been pretty good at consistently releasing upgrades for the i3.

It’s not a brand new electric car, but I think it’s getting a significant enough update to merit a mention here.

The 2019 BMW i3 is getting new 120Ah battery cells, which is going to result in a new 42 kWh battery pack for a range of about 153 miles, according to the automaker.

That’s about a 30% increase over the previous version.

BMW has historically been good at updating the specs of the i3 without increasing its MSRP significantly.

Right now, the BMW i3 is listed at a base price of $44,450 before incentives.

Nissan Leaf 2019 with 60 kWh battery pack

Like the BMW i3, we are not talking about a new vehicle, but the Nissan Leaf is also getting a significant enough update to merit a mention here.

The 60 kWh battery pack for the Nissan Leaf has been talked about for years, but it’s finally expected to hit the market this year.

It should bring the range of the Leaf to over 200 miles and make it an affordable long-range all-electric vehicle.

We expect to have all the details as soon as next week. Stay tuned.

Porsche Taycan

The Porsche Taycan is arguably the most anticipated electric vehicle of 2019 because it will introduce a 800-volt system and the fastest EV charging we have seen to date.

Even though it’s another high-end all-electric vehicle that only a few wealthy people are going to be able to afford, the technology is going to push to the whole industry to a new level in my opinion.

Aside from the charging system, the vehicle is expected to have a significant range with different option ranging between 200 and 300 miles.

The Porsche Taycan is also expected to be able to maintain a high-speed for a long period of time without overheating.

In terms of pricing, it should start at about $90,000 and it is expected to into production around the end of the year.

Kia Niro EV

The Hyundai Kona EV has already hit the market and the Niro EV is very similar, but it offers yet another option on the market starting in 2019.

The company says that in Europe, the Niro EV will be equipped with “a high-capacity 64 kWh lithium-polymer battery pack” capable of a 100 kW charge rate and a front wheel drive 150 kW (204 ps) motor, “producing 395 Nm torque from a standstill, enabling the Niro EV to accelerate from 0 to 100 kph in just 7.8 seconds.”

Just like the Kona Electric, a less expensive version will also be available with a “39.2 kWh lithium-polymer battery pack” for a range of “up to 300 kilometres (186 miles) from a single charge.”

The 64 kWh version is expected to result in about 250 miles of range.

We haven’t had the chance to test the vehicle yet, but we are going to around the end of January.

Like the Kona EV, the vehicle is expected to be priced aggressively, but the availability is also expected to be limited to CARB states, like the Kona EV.

Volvo all-electric XC40

Volvo’s new XC40 has been very well-received in the very popular compact SUV segment and now the automaker has confirmed earlier this year that it plans to make an all-electric version as soon as next year.

With most electric SUVs hitting the market being in bigger or more premium segment, like the Mercedes-Benz EQC and Audi e-tron quattro, this one should come at a lower price.

Unfortunately, not much is known about the vehicle just yet, but Volvo’s latest CUV platform was built from the ground up to support several types of powertrains – including an all-electric one.

My main fear with the all-electric XC40 is that Volvo could price it too high against the non-electric version, which starts at $36,000. That’s often a problem for automakers who sell electric and gas-powered versions of the same car.

If it ends up being over $50,000, I think it will be a tough sell at the dealership, but anywhere close or even below that could be a very attractive option on the market.

The vehicle is expected to have over 200 miles of range on a single charge.

Others?

That’s about it for what is expected to come to market in 2019, but there could also be a few surprises in 2019. Let us know what you think those could be in the comment section below.

Also, we are definitely going to see several new vehicles announced this year for release in the coming years, which should make for an exciting 2019.

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About the Author

Fred Lambert

 

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Tesla launches new incentives for employees to buy cars and get on Autopilot Hardware 3 test program

Fred Lambert

- Dec. 29th 2018 7:23 pm ET

@FredericLambert

 

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Tesla tries to kill two birds with one stone as it launches new incentives to both deliver more vehicles by the end of the year and get more employees on its new Autopilot Hardware 3 test program.EXPAND FULL STORY 

Watch Tesla Model 3 being assembled from start to finish

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- Dec. 29th 2018 11:45 am ET

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New red Tesla Semi electric truck prototype spotted in the wild

Fred Lambert

- Dec. 28th 2018 6:14 pm ET

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We have only seen two Tesla Semi electric truck prototypes since the launch over a year ago, but it now looks like there might be a third one or at least a modified one as a red Tesla Semi has been spotted in the wild.EXPAND FULL STORY 

Electrek Podcast: Tesla appoints new board members, software update, cheap Chinese EV, and more

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- Dec. 28th 2018 3:29 pm ET

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Porsche says Tesla owners are the top Taycan reservation holders

Fred Lambert

- Dec. 28th 2018 1:44 pm ET

@FredericLambert

 

TESLA PORSCHE PORSCHE TAYCAN

508 Comments 

We are still about a year away from Porsche starting the production of the Taycan, its first all-electric vehicle, but the company is already seeing some strong demand.

The German automaker claims that they have a year worth of pre-orders and Tesla owners are the top Taycan reservation holders.EXPAND FULL STORY 

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First Drive: 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

With a range of 415 kilometres, Hyundai's Kona Electric has the goods to turn the mainstream EV market on its ear

by GRAEME FLETCHER  | OCTOBER 15, 2018

LOS ANGELES — This 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric is a stylish package aimed at those with an active lifestyle. The good news is that aside from fitting said role to a tee, it’s set to put range anxiety to bed once and for all — Stats Canada says the average Canadian’s commute is 22.8 kilometres one way. As such, the Kona Electric will allow those that commute this distance to recharge the battery just once a week.

The Kona Electric employs an electric motor with a single speed transmission and a 64-kWh lithium-ion battery — it takes 9.5 hours to fully recharge using a 220-volt outlet. The combination delivers one very important number — a driving range of 415 kilometres. This makes it one of the best, in spite of the range being a very conservative number; at the start of our drive, the instrumentation was showing a range of 460 kilometres. This means that under ideal driving conditions with lots of regenerative braking, close to 500 kilometres would not be out of the question.

The beauty is, in spite of delivering zero local emissions, the Kona EV drives with a turn of speed simply not expected of an electric ride. The credit goes to the 201 horsepower and, more importantly, the 291 lb.-ft. of torque fired through the front wheels. Matting the accelerator from a standstill saw the EV chirp its P215/55R17 tires as it romped off the line.

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

 

But the proof of the level of performance is found in the acceleration number. As peak torque turns up the instant the wheels begin to turn, the Kona Electric whisks the driver from rest to 100 km/h in 7.9 seconds. That is good for a compact crossover — and outstanding for an electric car.

The powertrain can be tweaked to make the most of it. There are Eco, Eco+, Normal and Sport modes. Eco+ is pretty much superfluous — it turns off everything, including the climate control system, and softens the response to generate the maximum driving range. Eco is the best for everyday driving, as it brings a decent turn of speed while maximizing efficiency. It also allows the seats to be heated or cooled and uses the air conditioning/heater to keep the cabin comfortable.

Normal mode cranks up the Kona Electric, but does not make the drive feel much different from Eco. Sport turns the Kona Electric into a speedy buggy and puts some weight in the steering. A run up a canyon road proved it to be the ideal setting for spirited driving. The other place the driver can affect how the Kona EV drives is through two steering wheel-mounted paddles — these give access to the four levels of regenerative braking. The range runs from basically nothing to a one-pedal drive.

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by GRAEME FLETCHER | SEPTEMBER 18, 2018

There is a minor nit to pick — making the Kona EV a true one-pedal drive requires the left paddle to be held to maintain the level of regen braking once around 10 to 12 km/h. The preferred solution would be to allow the driver to control the level of retardation through the accelerator pedal, like the BMW i3. That aside, picking the most aggressive regen braking setup meant said canyon drive demonstrated that there was absolutely no need to use the brakes, regardless of whether lifting for a corner or using the regen to slow a downhill descent.

The other place the Kona Electric impresses is the manner in which it handles. The under-floor placement of the battery means it has a very low centre of gravity. This lends to a minimal roll tendency in the first place, and so the suspension was tuned to deliver equal measures of roll control and comfort.

Throw in a responsive steering setup and the added weight in Sport mode, and the Kona carved corners in a truly entertaining manner. More surprising was the fact the seat of my pants said the EV’s handling was on par with the gas-powered Kona models, if not slightly better overall. That’s not what’s expected of an electrified crossover. No it’s not a sports car, but it sure dispenses with the humdrum drive of a Nissan Leaf.

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

  • 2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    2019 Hyundai Kona Electric

    Graeme Fletcher, Driving

 

The EV’s cabin has been gussied up to deliver a modern look and all the desirable amenities — the base Preferred trim get lots, while the top-line Ultimate gets everything. The instrumentation is clean and concise, delivering all the pertinent information in a clean fashion. As for amenities, the list runs from the heated and cooled front seats. through to an eight-inch floating infotainment touchscreen that supports Apple CarPlay, Android Auto and the standard GPS navigation system. It also has some techy stuff like a head-up display, but it’s a chintzy pop-up piece of plastic that’s best left turned off.

When it comes to utility, there’s no sacrifice. The back seat will accommodate two adults comfortably and it has the same cargo space as the gas-powered model. With the seats upright, cargo volume measures 544 litres and grows to 1,297 with them folded flat. Finally, all Kona Electrics come with a complete suite of standard safety equipment. Between the two trim levels, the only difference is that automatic high beams are only found on the Ultimate.

The new Hyundai Kona Electric is going to turn the electric market on its ear — it’s mean with a rewarding turn of speed, there are no local emissions and it has that anxiety-free, 415-kilometre driving range. Pricing will not be announced until closer to its December launch date, but expect it to compete with the Chevrolet Bolt.

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Almost One Third Of All New Car Sales In Norway In 2018 Were For Pure Electric Vehicles

January 3rd, 2019 by  


The Norwegian Road Traffic Information Council (Opplysningsra°det for Veitrafikken, OFV) just released a new report on car sales in the country. As expected, these numbers shame everybody else, by far, again!

“2018 was the year new passenger cars that run on alternative fuels fortified their strong position in the market,” says Øyvind Solberg Thorsen, Director of OFV.

In 2017, 20.9% of all new passenger cars registered were zero emission. In 2018 that share is very close to one-third: 31.2%! If plug-in hybrids are added, a mind-boggling 49.1% of market share is confirming that this country of 5.3 million souls is going to be an electric-only nation in a very few years.

“This consolidates Norway’s position as the world leader with regard to sale of cars using alternative fuels,” Øyvind Solberg Thorsen adds.

 

Market share of battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles sales in Norway – data source elbil.no and ofv.no

2017 was a peak year for Norway in terms of car sales in general. In 2018, sales declined 6.8% to a total of 147,929 new cars, which is quite a bit lower than OFV’s forecast of 157,700 cars. A reason for this could be the new measuring method, WLTP, which meant that some car manufacturers could not deliver certain car models in the autumn of 2018. However, in 2019, many new electric cars will fulfill the demand of price and functionality of many families, and sales are expected to surge.

Still, OFV’s total forecast for 2019 is a conservative 146,300 new passenger cars, in part because there is doubt that manufacturers can meet demand when other countries wake up to the electric car revolution, which is expected to gain momentum in 2019 due to the many new models coming to market with longer range options and lower prices.

 

My first encounter with the Model 3

I personally expect Tesla Model 3 will have a huge impact on the Norwegian market. Prices are competitive, and Tesla is certainly gearing up to produce the number of cars needed. It would probably be safe to guess that Norway has some 40,000 reservations on the Model 3. But ironically, the introduction of the Model Y later this year might slow down the Model 3 surge somewhat. When new potential customers see the Model 3 in the streets this summer and realize that a much more family friendly Model Y is on the way, many will surely choose to wait.

 

The i3 that baffled me

The most popular model of 2018 in Norway was the Nissan Leaf with 12,303 cars sold (8.3% of all cars market share). VW Golf is still popular with 9,859 cars sold (6.7%), and the BMW i3 is actually doing quite well with 5,687 cars sold (3.8%).

The three most popular brands of 2018 in total new cars sold were VW with 20,071 cars (13.6%), Toyota with 14,709 cars (9.9%), and Nissan with 14,216 cars sold (9.6%).

The report also notes that the sales of diesel cars continue to plummet. The share of diesels sold has declined from 23.1% in 2017 to 17.7% in 2018. Bye, bye diesel. Gasoline, you’re next. 
 


 

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About the Author

 

 Jesper had his perspective on the world expanded vastly after having attended primary school in rural Africa in the early 1980s. And while educated a computer programmer and laboratory technician, working with computers and lab-robots at the institute of forensic medicine in Aarhus, Denmark, he never forgets what life is like having nothing. Thus it became obvious for him that technological advancement is necessary for the prosperity of all humankind, sharing this one vessel we call planet earth. However, technology has to be smart, clean, sustainable, widely accessible, and democratic in order to change the world for the better. Writing about clean energy, electric transportation, energy poverty, and related issues, he gets the message through to anyone who wants to know better. Jesper is founder of Lifelike.dk.

 

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